It is important for Dr Andrews to ensure that you are well informed. Some commonly used words and their meanings are listed below to help educate you about upper limb orthopaedic terminology.

Arthritis: Wear and inflammation of a joint.

Arthroplasty: Joint replacement, usually with metal / plastic, ceramic or pyrocarbon prosthesis. 

Arthroscopy: “Keyhole” surgery using a scope.

Bankart Lesion: Detachment of the anterior labrum (cartilage rim) at the shoulder, usually due to dislocation and causing ongoing instability.

Cyst (Or Bone Cyst): Fluid filled sac.

Bone Metastases: Cancer that has spread to bone.

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: Compression of the median nerve at the wrist (carpal tunnel), causing numbness of the fingers and pain.

Dupuytren’s Disease: “Vikings Disease” – thickening of the connective tissue of the palm causing progressive contracture of the fingers.

Hill-Sachs Lesion: Compression fracture – “crushing” of the humeral head due to dislocation.

Lateral Epicondylitis: “Tennis elbow” – tendonopathy +/- tear of the tendon on the lateral side of the elbow.

Ligament: Connects two bones together.

Mal-union: Bone union in non-anatomical or poor alignment.

Medial Epicondylitis: “Golfers elbow” – tendonopathy +/- tear of the tendon on the medial side of the elbow.

Multidirectional Instability: Laxity of the joint resulting in dislocation / subluxation in multiple directions.

Nerve Block: Injection of local anaesthesia around a nerve to relieve pain.

Non-union: Failure of bone to heal.

Osteectomy: Removal of bone.

Osteoarthritis: Chronic wear of a joint resulting in loss of cartilage and inflammation.

Osteomyelitis: Infection of bone.

Osteonecrosis: Death of bone due to loss of blood supply.

Osteotomy: The cutting of a bone to correct the alignment or position.

Rheumatoid Arthritis: Chronic inflammatory arthritis that can cause bone erosion and joint deformity.

Rotator Cuff: Group of four tendons that wrap around the shoulder, that help with elevation, rotation and control of the shoulder.

Sarcoma: A rare type of cancer of the connective tissues.

Septic Arthritis: Infection in a joint.

Shoulder Impingement: Abrasion or catching of the rotator cuff on the overhanging acromion, coraco-acromial ligament or AC joint.

Tendon: Connects muscle to bone.

Tendonopathy: Degenerative change of a tendon.

Trigger Finger: Catching or locking of the finger due to the flexor tendon jamming under the restraining pulley.